Lunugamwehera National Park was declared in 1995 with the objective of protecting the catchment area of the Lunugamvehera Reservoir and the wildlife of the area. The national park is an important habitat for water birds and elephants. This national park serves as a corridor for elephants to migrate between Yala National Park and Udawalawe National Park.
Since Lunugamwera is located in the dry zone of Sri Lanka, the Southwest monsoon relief garden is exposed to annual drought. The elevation of the park is 91 m (299 ft). Out of the 23,498 hectares of the total land area, 1483 hectares of land belong to the reservoir. Another 50 hectares are two small reservoirs. Annual rainfall near Thanamalwila is 1,000 mm (39 inches). Rainfall decreases from north to south and west to east through the national park. The mean annual temperature of Lunugamvehera is 30 ° C (86 ° F).
The forest of the Lunugamwera Park, characterized by several layers of forest. Drypetes sparia, Manilcar hexandra, Schleichera oleosa, Lania coromandelica, Diospyros ovulifolia, Polyaltia corontii, Carmona microfilaria, Croton lasiterus and Coffea vaitiana. The grassland area contains several grass species. Chloris montana, Synodon dactylon, Panicum maxima, Imperata cylindrica, Lantana kamara, Chromolena odorata, Mimosa pudica, Carmona microfila, and Securinega leucoporus are found in abandoned Chena lands. Teak and eucalyptus crops are now common in the forest.
The park’s fauna includes 21 fish species, 12 amphibians, 33 reptiles, 183 birds and 43 mammals. Common mammals include Sri Lankan elephants, aquatic buffalo, sambar deer in Sri Lanka, wild gold, Sri Lankan spotted chevrotains, twisted giant squirrels, Sri Lankan ax deer, and Asian palm cave. Among the amphibians found in the forest are the Bufo aquarium and the Fejarvaria pulla. The Mugger Crocodile is one of the aquatic reptiles. Large water birds live here, such as the gray heron, the black-headed ibis, the Asian open bill, the painted orc, and the local bill pelican.