Horton Plains National Park is a protected area in the central highlands of Sri Lanka and is covered with montane grasslands and cloud forests. The first name of the area was the great Elijah Tenna (Sethala - "Great Open Plain"). However, during the British period, the plains were named by Sir Robert Wilmot-Horton, Governor of Ceylon from 1831 to 1837. Since Sri Lanka has a long non-written history, it has a significant and logical folklore and is intertwined with the epic epic Ramayana. Dec. 5, 1969, was designated a wildlife sanctuary. Due to its biodiversity value, it was upgraded to a national park on 18 March 1988. Was added to the World Heritage List in July 2010.
At an altitude of 2,100–2,300 m (6,900–7,500 ft), the plateau is rich in biodiversity and many species are endemic to the region. The park's vegetation is classified into two distinct categories, 2,000 hectares (7.7 sq mi) of wetland and 1,160 hectares (4.5 sq mi) of subtropical montane evergreen forests. Nearly 750 species of plants belonging to 20 families have been recorded from the park. Approximately 54 timber species have been recorded from the park, of which 27 (50%) are endemic to Sri Lanka. The tree trunks and branches are endemic to many ferns, leucopodium, lichen .
The region's vertebrate fauna includes 24 mammals, 87 bird species, 9 reptile species and eight amphibian species. Sambar deer are the largest and most common mammals today. Among the mammals are Kellart's long claws, the toe macaques, the purple-faced langer, the rusty spots, the Sri Lankan leopard, the walrus gold, the striped-necked mongoose. The wood pigeons of Sri Lanka are found only in the Horton Plains and among the other endemic species are Sri Spurfall, Sri Lankan Jungle Birds, Bild bubble, Sri Lanka Sri Lanka vōrblar Bush Whistle-teras. Many birds migrate here in the winter, including the swiftlet and the alpine swift. The endemic freshwater prawn Caridina sinensis is only found in streams with temperatures below 15 degrees Celsius and is now limited to 10 kilometers from one stream.
Horton Plains is a popular tourist destination. The park is accessible by the Nuwara Eliya-Ambewela-Pattipola and Haputale-Boralanda roads and has Ohiya and Ambawela railway stations.